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Oxidized implants and their influence on the bone response.

Journal article
Authors Young-Taeg Sul
Carina B. Johansson
Yongsoo Jeong
Kerstin Röser
Ann Wennerberg
Tomas Albrektsson
Published in Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Volume 12
Issue 10-12
Pages 1025-31
ISSN 0957-4530
Publication year 2001
Published at Institute of Surgical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 1025-31
Language en
Subject categories Surface engineering, Biomaterials


Surface oxide properties are regarded to be of great importance in establishing successful osseointegration of titanium implants. Despite a large number of theoretical questions on the precise role of oxide properties of titanium implants, current knowledge obtained from in vivo studies is lacking. The present study is designed to address two aspects. The first is to verify whether oxide properties of titanium implants indeed influence the in vivo bone tissue responses. The second, is to investigate what oxide properties underline such bone tissue responses. For these purposes, screw-shaped/turned implants have been prepared by electrochemical oxidation methods, resulting in a wide range of oxide properties in terms of: (i) oxide thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm, (ii) the surface morphology of barrier and porous oxide film structures, (iii) micro pore configuration - pore sizes<8 microm by length, about 1.27 microm2 to 2.1 microm2 by area and porosity of about 12.7-24.4%, (iv) the crystal structures of amorphous, anatase and mixtures of anatase and rutile type, (v) the chemical compositions of TiO2 and finally, (vi) surface roughness of 0.96-1.03 microm (Sa). These implant oxide properties were divided into test implant samples of Group II, III, IV and V. Control samples (Group I) were turned commercially pure titanium implants. Quantitative bone tissue responses were evaluated biomechanically by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and removal torque (RT) test. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses and qualitative enzyme histochemical detection of alkaline (ALP) and acidic phosphatase (ACP) activities were investigated on cut and ground sections after six weeks of implant insertion in rabbit tibia. In essence, from the biomechanical and quantitative histomorphometric measurements we concluded that oxide properties of titanium implants, i.e. the oxide thickness, the microporous structure, and the crystallinity significantly influence the bone tissue response. At this stage, however, it is not clear whether oxide properties influence the bone tissue response separately or synergistically. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

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