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Bone reactions to oxidized titanium implants with electrochemical anion sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid incorporation.

Journal article
Authors Young-Taeg Sul
Carina B. Johansson
Yunmo Kang
Dong-Gyun Jeon
Tomas Albrektsson
Published in Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
Volume 4
Issue 2
Pages 78-87
ISSN 0905-7161
Publication year 2002
Published at Institute of Surgical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 78-87
Language en
Keywords bone responses, histomorphometry, oxidized implants, removal torque test, surface oxide properties
Subject categories Surface engineering, Biomaterials


BACKGROUND: The importance of the surface properties of implants for a successful osseointegration has been emphasized. It is generally known that bone response to implant surfaces is considerably related to the various surface properties. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate bone tissue reactions to multifactorial biocompatibility of the surface oxide of electrochemically oxidized titanium implants. The ultimate objective was to improve surface quality, resulting in enhancement of clinical outcomes of osseointegrated implants. Materials and METHODS: Three different surface types of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) implants were prepared. Turned implants were used for controls and test implants were prepared by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method, either in sulphuric acid (S implants) or in phosphoric acid (P implants). Implants were inserted in the femur and tibia of 10 mature New Zealand White rabbits. The bone response was evaluated by biomechanical tests, histology, and histomorphometry. The follow-up time was 6 weeks. RESULTS: The mean peak values of the removal torque showed significant differences between control and test S implants (p =.022) but showed no significant differences between control and test P implants (p =.195) or between test S and test P implants (p =.457). In addition, the histomorphometric comparisons of the bone-to-metal contact around entire implants demonstrated 186% increase in S implants (p =.028) and 232% increase in P implants (p =.028) compared with the paired control groups. Quantification of the bone area in the threads did not show any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that the primary mode of action in strong bone response to S implants is mechanical interlocking, and to P implants, it is biochemical interaction. It is possible that the phosphate groups in the titanium oxide of P implants provide potential chemical bonding sites for calcium ions and hydroxyapatite of the bone matrix during biologic mineralization. key words: bone responses, histomorphometry, oxidized implants, removal torque test, surface oxide properties

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