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Resonance frequency and removal torque analysis of implants with turned and anodized surface oxides.

Journal article
Authors Young-Taeg Sul
Carina B. Johansson
Yongsoo Jeong
Ann Wennerberg
Tomas Albrektsson
Published in Clin Oral Implants Res
Volume 13
Issue 3
Pages 252-9
ISSN 0905-7161
Publication year 2002
Published at Institute of Surgical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 252-9
Language en
Keywords titanium implants, titanium oxide properties, resonance frequency analysis, removal torque measurement
Subject categories Surface engineering, Biomaterials


The present experimental study was designed to address two issues. The first was to investigate whether oxide properties of titanium implants influenced bone tissue responses after an in vivo implantation time of six weeks. If such a result was found, the second aim was to investigate which oxide properties are involved in such bone tissue responses. Screw-shaped implants with a wide range of oxide properties were prepared by electrochemical oxidation methods, where the oxide thickness varied in the range of 200 nm to 1000 nm. The surface morphology was prepared in two substantially different ways, i.e. barrier and porous oxide film structures. The micropore structure revealed pore sizes of 8 microm in diameter, with a range in opening area from 1.27 microm 2 to 2.1 microm 2. Porosity ranged from 12.7% to 24.4%. The crystal structures of the titanium oxide were amorphous, anatase and a mixture of anatase and rutile type. The chemical compositions consisted mainly of TiO2. Surface roughness ranged from 0.96 microm to 1.03 microm (Sa). Each group of test samples showed its own, defined status with respect to these various parameters. The oxide properties of turned commercially pure titanium implants were used in the control group, which was characterized by an oxide thickness of 17.4 +/- 6.2 nm, amorphous type in crystallinity, TiO2 in chemical composition, and a surface roughness of 0.83 microm (Sa). Bone tissue responses were evaluated by resonance frequency measurements and removal torque tests that were undertaken six weeks after implant insertion in rabbit tibia. Implants that had an oxide thickness of approximately 600, 800 and 1000 nm demonstrated significantly stronger bone responses in the evaluation of removal torque values than did implants that had an oxide thickness of approximately 17 and 200 nm (P < 0.05). However, there were no difference between implants with oxide thicknesses of 17 and 200 nm (P = 0.99). It was concluded that oxide properties of titanium implants, which include oxide thickness, micropore configurations and crystal structures, greatly influence the bone tissue response in the evaluation of removal torque values. However, it is not fully understood whether these oxide properties influence the bone tissue response separately or synergistically.

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