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The effects of source and type of feedback on child witnesses' metamemory accuracy

Journal article
Authors Carl Martin Allwood
Anna-Carin Jonsson
Pär-Anders Granhag
Published in Applied Cognitive Psychology
Volume 19
Issue 3
Pages 331-344
ISSN 0888-4080
Publication year 2005
Published at Department of Psychology
Pages 331-344
Language en
Keywords eyewitness-identification, confidence judgments, postidentification-feedback, hindsight bias, memory, realism, misinformation, perceptions, suggestibility, reiteration
Subject categories Psychology


This study investigated the effect of feedback on the accuracy (realism) of 12-year-old children's metacognitive judgments of their answers to questions about a film clip. Two types of judgments were investigated: confidence judgments (on each question) and frequency judgments (i.e. estimates of overall accuracy). The source of feedback, whether it was presented as provided by a teacher or a peer child, did not influence metacognitive accuracy. Four types of feedback were given depending on whether the participant's answer was correct and depending on whether the feedback confirmed or disconfirmed the child's answer. The children showed large overconfidence when they received confirmatory feedback but much less so when they received disconfirmatory feedback. The children gave frequency judgments implying that they had more correct answers than they actually had. No main gender differences were found for any of the measures. The results indicate a high degree of malleability in children's metacognitive judgments.

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