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From the Golgi-Cajal mapping to the transmitter-based characterization of the neuronal networks leading to two modes of brain communication: wiring and volume transmission.

Journal article
Authors Kjell Fuxe
Annica Dahlström
Malin Höistad
Daniel Marcellino
Anders Jansson
Alicia Rivera
Zaida Diaz-Cabiale
Kirsten Jacobsen
Barbro Tinner-Staines
Beth Hagman
Giuseppina Leo
William Staines
Diego Guidolin
Jan Kehr
Susanna Genedani
Natale Belluardo
Luigi F Agnati
Published in Brain research reviews
Volume 55
Issue 1
Pages 17-54
ISSN 0165-0173
Publication year 2007
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Pages 17-54
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.20...
Subject categories Medical and Health Sciences

Abstract

After Golgi-Cajal mapped neural circuits, the discovery and mapping of the central monoamine neurons opened up for a new understanding of interneuronal communication by indicating that another form of communication exists. For instance, it was found that dopamine may be released as a prolactin inhibitory factor from the median eminence, indicating an alternative mode of dopamine communication in the brain. Subsequently, the analysis of the locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons demonstrated a novel type of lower brainstem neuron that monosynaptically and globally innervated the entire CNS. Furthermore, the ascending raphe serotonin neuron systems were found to globally innervate the forebrain with few synapses, and where deficits in serotonergic function appeared to play a major role in depression. We propose that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may produce antidepressant effects through increasing serotonergic neurotrophism in serotonin nerve cells and their targets by transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), involving direct or indirect receptor/RTK interactions. Early chemical neuroanatomical work on the monoamine neurons, involving primitive nervous systems and analysis of peptide neurons, indicated the existence of alternative modes of communication apart from synaptic transmission. In 1986, Agnati and Fuxe introduced the theory of two main types of intercellular communication in the brain: wiring and volume transmission (WT and VT). Synchronization of phasic activity in the monoamine cell clusters through electrotonic coupling and synaptic transmission (WT) enables optimal VT of monoamines in the target regions. Experimental work suggests an integration of WT and VT signals via receptor-receptor interactions, and a new theory of receptor-connexin interactions in electrical and mixed synapses is introduced. Consequently, a new model of brain function must be built, in which communication includes both WT and VT and receptor-receptor interactions in the integration of signals. This will lead to the unified execution of information handling and trophism for optimal brain function and survival.

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