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Bone reactions to longstanding functional load at implants: an experimental study in dogs.

Journal article
Authors Tord Berglundh
Ingemar Abrahamsson
Jan Lindhe
Published in Journal of clinical periodontology
Volume 32
Issue 9
Pages 925-32
ISSN 0303-6979
Publication year 2005
Published at Institute of Odontology, Department of Periodontology
Pages 925-32
Language en
Keywords Alveolar Bone Loss, etiology, pathology, radiography, Animals, Dental Abutments, adverse effects, Dental Implantation, Endosseous, adverse effects, methods, Dental Implants, adverse effects, Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported, adverse effects, Denture, Partial, Fixed, adverse effects, Dogs, Mandible, radiography, surgery, Mandibular Diseases, etiology, pathology, radiography, Time Factors, Weight-Bearing
Subject categories Periodontology


OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present investigation were (i) to study marginal bone level alterations following implant installation, abutment connection and functional loading and (ii) to analyse bone tissue reactions to functional load. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six beagle dogs, about 1-year old, were used. All mandibular pre-molars were extracted. Three months later four implants of the Astra Tech Implants Dental System were installed in one side of the mandible and four standard fixtures of the Brånemark System were placed in the contralateral side of the mandible. Abutment connection was performed 3 months later and a plaque control programme was initiated. Three months after abutment connection fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made in gold were cemented to the maxillary canines and pre-molars. FPDs were also connected to the three posterior implants in each side of the mandible, while the mesial implant in each side was used as an unloaded control. Radiographs were obtained from all implant sites following implant installation, abutment connection and FPD placement. Ten months after the FPD placement the radiographic examination was repeated. The animals were sacrificed and biopsies from all implant sites were obtained and prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The radiographic analysis revealed that largest amount of bone loss occurred following implant installation and abutment connection and that this loss was more pronounced at Brånemark than at Astra implants. The bone level alterations that were observed at implants exposed to 10 months of functional load in both implant systems were small and did not differ from control sites. The histological analysis revealed that implants exposed to functional load exhibited a higher degree of bone-to-implant contact than control implants in both implant systems. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that functional load at implants may enhance osseointegration and does not result in marginal bone loss.

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