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Anorexia nervosa and autism: a prospective twin cohort study

Journal article
Authors Lisa Dinkler
Mark J. Taylor
Maria Råstam
Nouchine Hadjikhani
Cynthia M. Bulik
Paul Lichtenstein
Christopher Gillberg
Sebastian Lundström
Published in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
ISSN 0021-9630
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre
Centre for Ethics, Law, and Mental Health
Language en
Links https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13265
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/324...
Keywords anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, Eating disorder, longitudinal studies
Subject categories Child and adolescent psychiatry

Abstract

© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be phenotypically and etiologically linked. However, due to the absence of prospective studies, it remains unclear whether the elevation of autistic traits in AN is evident in early childhood. Here, we prospectively investigated autistic traits before and after the first diagnosis of AN. Methods: In a population-based sample of 5,987 individuals (52.4% female) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, parents reported autistic traits at ages 9 and 18. AN and ASD diagnoses were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. In addition, AN diagnoses were ascertained by parent-reported treatment for AN. We compared whether individuals with and without AN differed in autistic traits before the first diagnosis of AN (age 9) and after the first diagnosis of AN (age 18). Results: We did not find evidence for elevated autistic traits in 9-year-old children later diagnosed with AN. At age 18, however, there was a marked elevation in restricted/repetitive behavior and interests, but only in the subgroup of individuals with acute AN. A less pronounced elevation was observed for social communication problems. Conclusions: Coping strategies in individuals with ASD and the somewhat different female ASD phenotype may explain why we did not find elevated autistic traits in children who later developed AN. Alternatively, it is possible that elevated autistic traits were not present prior to the onset of AN, thus questioning the previously reported elevated prevalence of ASD in AN. Future studies should use tailored measurements in order to investigate whether autistic traits in individuals with AN are best conceptualized as an epiphenomenon of the acute AN phase or whether these symptoms indeed represent ASD as a clinically verifiable neurodevelopmental disorder.

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