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Expression of MicroRNAs in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal article
Authors Farah Asa'ad
Carlos Garaicoa-Pazmiño
Christer Dahlin
Lena Larsson
Published in International journal of molecular sciences
Volume 21
Issue 11
ISSN 1422-0067
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Odontology, Section 2
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114147
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Keywords epigenomics; microRNAs; microarray analysis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Subject categories Medical Biotechnology, Biomaterials Science, Clinical Medicine, Dentistry

Abstract

The purpose of this review was to evaluate the expression patterns of miRNAs in periodontal and peri-implant diseases, while identifying potential miRNAs with the greatest diagnostic ability as an oral fluid biomarker.Human and animal studies were included when evaluating expression of miRNAs between health and different forms/stages of diseases, in which microarray and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect fold changes in gene expression. After full-text analysis, 43 articles were considered for a qualitative assessment, and 16 miRNAs were selected to perform meta-analysis.Based on human studies, results showed an overall upregulation of most of the evaluated miRNAs in periodontitis, with miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a being the most conclusive on both microarray and RT-PCR values and potentially serving as diagnostic biomarkers for disease activity. Conversely, miR-155 was the only miRNA revealing a statistically significant difference (SSD) (p < 0.05*) in experimental periodontitis models from RT-PCR values. Scarce scientific evidence is available from peri-implant diseases, however, most explored miRNAs in peri-implantitis were downregulated except for miR-145.Although our results revealed that a distinct differential expression of specific miRNAs can be noted between the state of health and disease, future research remains necessary to explore the functional role of specific miRNAs and their potential as therapeutic targets in periodontal and peri-implant diseases. MeSH Terms: periodontitis, peri-implantitis, epigenomics, microarray analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, microRNAs.Scientific background: Although most research identified different expression levels of miRNAs in periodontal and peri-implant diseases compared to their counterparts, their actual role in the pathogenesis of these conditions remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the expression patterns of miRNAs in periodontitis and peri-implantitis, while identifying potential miRNAs with the greatest diagnostic ability as an oral fluid biomarker.In periodontitis-related studies, miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a were the most conclusive on both microarray and RT-PCR values. Scarce scientific evidence is available from peri-implant diseases.Both miRNA-142-3p and miRNA-146a might serve as future diagnostic biomarkers for disease activity in periodontitis. Yet, future research remains necessary to explore the functional role of specific miRNAs and their potential as therapeutic targets in periodontal and peri-implant diseases.

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