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The involvement of stress granules in aging and aging-associated diseases

Journal article
Authors X. L. Cao
X. J. Jin
Beidong Liu
Published in Aging Cell
Volume 19
Issue 4
ISSN 1474-9718
Publication year 2020
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13136
Keywords aging, aging-associated diseases, nonmembrane assemblies, proteostasis, RNA-binding proteins, stress granules, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, rna-binding protein, age-related-changes, liquid phase-separation, low-complexity domains, prion-like domains, messenger-rna, life-span, hexanucleotide repeat, translational control, Cell Biology, Geriatrics & Gerontology
Subject categories Geriatrics, Medical cell biology

Abstract

Stress granules (SGs) are nonmembrane assemblies formed in cells in response to stress conditions. SGs mainly contain untranslated mRNA and a variety of proteins. RNAs and scaffold proteins with intrinsically disordered regions or RNA-binding domains are essential for the assembly of SGs, and multivalent macromolecular interactions among these components are thought to be the driving forces for SG assembly. The SG assembly process includes regulation through post-translational modification and involvement of the cytoskeletal system. During aging, many intracellular bioprocesses become disrupted by factors such as cellular environmental changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decline in the protein quality control system. Such changes could lead to the formation of aberrant SGs, as well as alterations in their maintenance, disassembly, and clearance. These aberrant SGs might in turn promote aging and aging-associated diseases. In this paper, we first review the latest progress on the molecular mechanisms underlying SG assembly and SG functioning under stress conditions. Then, we provide a detailed discussion of the relevance of SGs to aging and aging-associated diseases.

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