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High-normal blood pressure conferred higher risk of cardiovascular disease in a random population sample of 50-year-old men: A 21-year follow-up.

Journal article
Authors Xiaojing Chen
Salim B. Barywani
Per-Olof Hansson
Annika Rosengren
Erik Thunström
You Zhong
Constantinos Ergatoudes
Zacharias Mandalenakis
Kenneth Caidahl
Michael Fu
Published in Medicine
Volume 99
Issue 17
ISSN 1536-5964
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Language en
Subject categories Cardiovascular medicine


The relationship between various categories of blood pressure (BP), subtypes of hypertension, and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been extensively studied. Therefore, our study aimed to explore this relationship in a random population sample of men born in 1943, living in Sweden and followed over a 21-year period.Participants were examined for the first time in 1993 (age 50 years), where data on medical history, concomitant diseases, and general health were collected. The examination was repeated in 2003 and with additional echocardiography also in 2014. Classification of participants according to their BP at the age of 50 years was as follows: optimal-normal BP (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <130 and diastolic BP [DBP] <85 mmHg), high-normal BP (130 ≤ SBP < 140, 85 ≤ DBP < 90 mmHg), isolated systolic-diastolic hypertension (ISH-IDH) (SBP ≥140 and DBP <90 or SBP <140 and DBP ≥90 mmHg), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) (SBP ≥140 and DBP ≥90 mmHg).During the follow-up, the incidence of heart failure (HF), CVD, and coronary heart disease were all lowest for those with optimal-normal BP. Participants with high-normal BP showed greater wall thickness and left ventricular mass index, larger LV size and larger left atrial size when compared with the optimal-normal BP group. Furthermore, those with high-normal BP, ISH-IDH, and SDH had a higher risk of CVD than those with optimal-normal BP. The adjusted relative risk of CVD was highest for SDH (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.37-2.79), followed by ISH-IDH (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.93-1.95) and high-normal BP (HR 1.31; 95% CI 0.91-1.89).Over a 21-year follow-up, the participants with high-normal BP or ISH-IDH had a higher relative risk of CVD than those with optimal-normal BP.

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