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Distinct and Overlapping Expression Patterns of the Homer Family of Scaffolding Proteins and Their Encoding Genes in Developing Murine Cephalic Tissues.

Journal article
Authors Claes-Göran Reibring
Kristina Hallberg
Anders Linde
Amel Gritli Linde
Published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume 21
Issue 4
ISSN 1422-0067
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Odontology, Section 2
Language en
Subject categories Cell and Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, Basic Medicine


In mammals Homer1, Homer2 and Homer3 constitute a family of scaffolding proteins with key roles in Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ transport. In rodents, Homer proteins and mRNAs have been shown to be expressed in various postnatal tissues and to be enriched in brain. However, whether the Homers are expressed in developing tissues is hitherto largely unknown. In this work, we used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to analyze the expression patterns of Homer1, Homer2 and Homer3 in developing cephalic structures. Our study revealed that the three Homer proteins and their encoding genes are expressed in a wide range of developing tissues and organs, including the brain, tooth, eye, cochlea, salivary glands, olfactory and respiratory mucosae, bone and taste buds. We show that although overall the three Homers exhibit overlapping distribution patterns, the proteins localize at distinct subcellular domains in several cell types, that in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells Homer proteins are concentrated in puncta and that the vascular endothelium is enriched with Homer3 mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest that Homer proteins may have differential and overlapping functions and are expected to be of value for future research aiming at deciphering the roles of Homer proteins during embryonic development.

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