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New species and reports of Cuphophyllus from northern North America compared with related Eurasian species

Journal article
Authors A. Voitk
I. Saar
D. J. Lodge
D. Boertmann
S. M. Berch
Ellen Larsson
Published in Mycologia
Volume 112
Issue 2
Pages 438-452
ISSN 0027-5514
Publication year 2020
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 438-452
Language en
Keywords Agaricales, Hygrophoraceae, molecular systematics, taxonomy, 4 new taxa, 2 new typifications, phylogenetic inference, inocybe, Mycology
Subject categories Biological Sciences


This study describes four gray or brown species of Cuphophyllus (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales), two of them new species, restricted to arctic-alpine and northern boreal zones of North America, and relates them morphologically and phylogenetically using multigene and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS (ITS barcode) analyses to their similar, known counterparts. Cuphophyllus cinerellus, epitypified here, is shown to be a pan-palearctic species with sequence-confirmed collections from Fennoscandia and easternmost Asia. Occupying a similar habitat in the Nearctic is its sister species, the morphologically similar but novel C. esteriae, so far known only from eastern North America, including Greenland. Sister to the C. cinerellus-C. esteriae lineage, and known only from boreal raised Sphagnum bogs in Newfoundland, is a new medium-sized light cinereous brown species, C. lamarum. It has a yellow stipe but is phylogenetically distant from the yellow-stiped European C. flavipes and its North American sister species, Hygrophorus pseudopallidus. As cryptic speciation was discovered within C. flavipes, we lecto- and epitypify the name and transfer H. pseudopallidus to Cuphophyllus based on ITS analysis of the holotype. We also transfer the small European Hygrocybe comosa to Cuphophyllus based on morphology. Cuphophyllus hygrocyboides is reported from North America with the first sequence-confirmed collections from arctic-alpine British Columbia and Greenland. In addition, sequencing the holotype of C. subviolaceus identifies it as the sister species to the putative C. lacmus. Both species seem to have an intercontinental distribution. In total, we add new sequences to GenBank from 37 Cuphophyllus collections, including the holotypes of C. hygrocyboides and C. subviolaceus, the two new epitypes, and the two novel species.

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