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A transition of atmospheric emissions of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks

Journal article
Authors L. Y. Zhou
Mattias Hallquist
M. Hallquist
Christian Mark Salvador
Samuel Mwaniki Gaita
A. Sjodin
M. Jerksjo
H. Salberg
I. Wangberg
J. Mellqvist
Q. Y. Liu
B. P. Lee
C. K. Chan
Published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume 20
Issue 3
Pages 1701-1722
ISSN 1680-7316
Publication year 2020
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 1701-1722
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1701-2020
Keywords real-world emissions, polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons, diesel exhaust, chemical-characterization, particulate matter, nox emissions, in-use, online measurements, size-distribution, number emissions, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Subject categories Environmental Sciences, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Abstract

The transition, in extent and characteristics, of atmospheric emissions caused by the modernization of the heavy-duty on-road fleet was studied utilizing roadside measurements. Emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and particle volatility were measured from 556 individual heavy-duty trucks (HDTs). Substantial reductions in PM, BC, NOx, CO, and to a lesser extent PN were observed from Euro III to Euro VI HDTs by 99 %, 98 %, 93 %, and 57% for the average emission factors of PM, BC, NOx, and CO, respectively. Despite significant total reductions in NOx emissions, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions increased continuously from Euro IV to Euro VI HDTs. Larger data scattering was evident for PN emissions in comparison to solid particle number (SPN) for Euro VI HDTs, indicating a highly variable fraction of volatile particle components. Particle size distributions of Euro III to enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle (EEV) HDTs were bimodal, whereas those of Euro VI HDTs were nucleation mode dominated. High emitters disproportionately contributed to a large fraction of the total emissions with the highest-emitting 10% of HDTs in each pollutant category being responsible for 65% of total PM, 70% of total PN, and 44% of total NOx emissions. Euro VI HDTs, which accounted for 53% of total kilometres driven by Swedish HDTs, were estimated to only contribute to 2 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 47% of PM, BC, NOx, and PN emissions, respectively. A shift to a fleet dominated by Euro VI HDTs would promote a transition of atmospheric emissions towards low PM, BC, NOx, and CO levels. Nonetheless, reducing PN, SPN, and NO2 emissions from Euro VI HDTs is still important to improve air quality in urban environments.

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