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Chapter 2: Oral conditions

Chapter in book
Authors Peter Lingström
Charlotte Simark-Mattsson
Published in The Impact of Nutrition and Diet on Oral Health. Zohoori, F. Vida (red.)
Pages 14–21
ISSN 0077-0892
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Odontology
Institute of Odontology, Section 3
Pages 14–21
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1159/000455367
Subject categories Dentistry

Abstract

An improvement in oral health, not least dental caries and periodontal disease, has been seen during the last 50 years. Oral health is essential for both general health and quality of life. The mouth is a window into the health of the body and signs of nutritional deficiencies can be seen in the mouth at an early stage. Dental caries still constitutes the most common oral condition worldwide. It is the net result of an ecological imbalance in the oral biofilm where metabolism of fermentable carbohydrates may result in demineralisation. Early diagnosis of disease symptoms and preventive strategies are important for disease management. Dental erosion, where loss of tooth substance is a result of exposure to acidic substances, has become a common condition. Intrinsic factors, including diet/drinks and intake habits, are common etiological causes. Periodontal diseases constitute chronic, biofilm-initiated inflammatory conditions with multifactorial origin including inherited and acquired risk factors. Preventive strategies focus on mechanisms, which may influence the amount and composition of the subgingival biofilm. Oral cancer is one of the most commonly found forms of malignancies worldwide. It is a highly complex condition where lifestyle factors, particularly smoking cessation and moderate alcohol consumption, play a major role as deterrents. Hyposalivation is of multifactorial aetiology and may influence oral health as well as various aspects of quality of life. To control oral health, it is important to increase our knowledge of oral disease aetiology and focus on oral health promotion and preventive strategies including the control of diet and nutritional risk factors. © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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