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Effects of supplementing with an 18% carbohydrate-hydrogel drink versus a placebo during whole-body exercise in-5 degrees C with elite cross-country ski athletes: a crossover study

Journal article
Authors Stefan Pettersson
Fredrik Edin
L. Bakkman
K. McGawley
Published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume 16
Issue 1
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0317-...
Subject categories Sport and Fitness Sciences

Abstract

Background Whilst the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise are well-documented, few investigations have studied the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during cross-country skiing, a mode of exercise that presents unique metabolic demands on athletes due to the combined use of large upper- and lower-body muscle masses. Moreover, no previous studies have investigated exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during cross-country skiing. The current study investigated the effects of a C-13-enriched 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution (1:0.8 maltodextrin:fructose) with additional gelling polysaccharides (CHO-HG) on substrate utilization and gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged cross-country skiing exercise in the cold, and subsequent double-poling time-trial performance in similar to 20 degrees C. Methods Twelve elite cross-country ski athletes (6 females, 6 males) performed 120-min of submaximal roller-skiing (69.3 +/- 2.9% of V? O(2)peak) in -5 degrees C while receiving either 2.2 g CHO-HG center dot min(- 1) or a non-caloric placebo administered in a double-blind, randomized manner. Whole-body substrate utilization and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was calculated for the last 60 min of the submaximal exercise. The maximal time-trial (2000 m for females, 2400 m for males) immediately followed the 120-min submaximal bout. Repeated-measures ANOVAs with univariate follow-ups were conducted, as well as independent and paired t-tests, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Data are presented as mean +/- SD. Results Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation contributed 27.6 +/- 6.6% to the total energy yield with CHO-HG and the peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate reached 1.33 +/- 0.27 g center dot min(- 1). Compared to placebo, fat oxidation decreased by 9.5 +/- 4.8% with CHO-HG, total carbohydrate oxidation increased by 9.5 +/- 4.8% and endogenous carbohydrate utilization decreased by 18.1 +/- 6.4% (all P < 0.05). No severe gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in either trial and euhydration was maintained in both trials. Time-trial performance (8.4 +/- 0.4 min) was not improved following CHO-HG compared to placebo (- 0.8 +/- 3.5 s; 95% confidence interval - 3.0 to 1.5 s; P = 0.46). No sex differences were identified in substrate utilization or relative performance. Conclusions Ingestion of an 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution with gelling polysaccharides was found to be well-tolerated during 120 min of submaximal whole-body exercise, but did not improve subsequent maximal double-poling performance.

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