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Secondary glaucoma and visual outcome after paediatric cataract surgery with primary bag-in-the-lens intraocular lens

Journal article
Authors Alf Nyström
Gunilla Magnusson
Madeleine Zetterberg
Published in Acta Ophthalmologica
ISSN 1755-375X
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14244
Keywords congenital cataract, paediatric cataract, phacoemulsification, primary intraocular lens, secondary, persistent fetal vasculature, infant aphakia treatment, 1st 5 years, congenital cataract, risk-factors, implantation, children, complications, acuity, phacoemulsification, Ophthalmology
Subject categories Ophthalmology

Abstract

Purpose To determine predictors of secondary glaucoma and poor visual outcome in children undergoing cataract surgery with bag-in-the-lens (BIL)-IOL implantation. Methods Medical records were retrospectively analysed for children with primary implantation with BIL-IOL during 2009-2013. Results The study included 109 eyes. Median age at surgery was 2.5 years (range 2 weeks-14.1 years), 26.6% being <= 12 weeks of age (= early group). Median follow-up time was 2.8 years (7 months-5.8 years). 15 eyes (13.8%) developed glaucoma, 14 (48.3%) in the early group and 1 (1.3%) in the late group (p < 0.001). Within the early group, mean time for surgery differed significantly. Patients developing glaucoma had cataract surgery at 3.5 +/- 1.1 weeks (mean +/- SD) and the non-glaucoma patients at 5.7 +/- 3.3 weeks (p = 0.024). In the entire cohort, 21 eyes (19.3%) had conditions associated with glaucoma; 57.1% of these developed glaucoma compared to 3.4% without these conditions (p < 0.001). Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) (decimal) of >= 0.5 was seen in 50 eyes (48.5%), median 0.63 in the late group and 0.15 in the early group. Glaucoma eyes in the early group (surgery at 3.5 weeks) achieved 0.56 median (range, 0.4-1.0) logMAR, (0.28 decimal) CDVA, whereas non-glaucoma eyes (surgery at 5.7 weeks) achieved 0.89 median (range 0.7-1.6) logMAR (0.13 decimal) CDVA; p = 0.016. Glaucoma development in infants between 5 weeks and 2 years of age was 6.7% (n = 2/30). Conclusions Comorbidity strongly increases the risk of secondary glaucoma. Surgery during the first month is correlated with better CDVA outcome and glaucoma. After 5 weeks of age, glaucoma rate is low with the BIL-IOL.

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