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Food and Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy in Relation to Maternal Characteristics: Results from the NICE Birth Cohort in Northern Sweden

Journal article
Authors M. Stravik
K. Jonsson
O. Hartvigsson
A. Sandin
Agnes E Wold
A. S. Sandberg
M. Barman
Published in Nutrients
Volume 11
Issue 7
ISSN 2072-6643
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Medicine
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11071680
Keywords nutrition, pregnancy, micronutrients, macronutrients, food intake, lifestyle, NICE study, socioeconomic differences, frequency questionnaire, dietary-intake, life-style, consumption, nutrition, validity, quality, fruit, brain, Nutrition & Dietetics
Subject categories Nutrition and Dietetics

Abstract

Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact on immunological maturation during childhood in relation to the environment) birth-cohort in northern Sweden. A food frequency questionnaire, Meal-Q, was administered in pregnancy Week 34, and the reported food and nutrient intakes were related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, rural/town residence, parity, pre-pregnancy smoking, first-trimester BMI, allergy and hyperemesis. Two lifestyle-diet clusters were identified: (1) High level of education and higher age were related to one another, and associated with a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish, and (2) smoking before pregnancy and higher BMI in early pregnancy were related to one another and associated with a diet that contained white bread, French fries, pizza, meat, soft drinks, candy and snacks. More than half of the women had lower-than-recommended daily intake levels of vitamin D, folate, selenium, and iodine. Complex lifestyle-diet interactions should be considered in observational studies that link diet and pregnancy outcome.

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