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Characterization of macrophage polarization in periodontal disease

Journal article
Authors C. Garaicoa-Pazmino
T. Fretwurst
C. H. Squarize
Tord Berglundh
W. V. Giannobile
Lena Larsson
R. M. Castilho
Published in J Clin Periodontol
Volume 46
Issue 8
Pages 830-839
ISSN 0303-6979
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Odontology
Pages 830-839
Language en
Keywords allergy and immunology, gingivitis, immunohistochemistry, immunologic factors, inflammation, periodontitis, nitric-oxide synthase, experimental gingivitis, arginase activity, peri-implantitis, attachment loss, nhanes 2009, prevalence, activation, expression, tissue, Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
Subject categories Dentistry


Aim To explore the M1/M2 status of macrophage polarization from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis patient samples. Materials and methods Gingival biopsies were collected from 42 individuals (14 gingivitis, 18 periodontitis, and 10 healthy samples) receiving periodontal therapy. Histomorphology analysis was performed with haematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunofluorescence was performed using a combination of CD68 (macrophages), iNOS (M1), and CD206 (M2) in order to acquire changes in macrophage polarization at a single-cell resolution. Macrophages were quantified under microscopy using narrow wavelength filters to detect Alexa 488, Alexa 568, Alexa 633 fluorophores, and Hoechst 33342 to identify cellular DNA content. Results Gingivitis and periodontitis samples showed higher levels of macrophages compared with healthy samples. Unexpectedly, periodontitis samples displayed lower levels of macrophages dispersed in the stromal tissues compared with gingivitis samples; however, it remained higher than healthy tissues. The polarization of macrophages appears to be reduced in periodontitis and showed similar levels to those observed in healthy tissues. Conclusions Our study found that gingivitis and periodontitis differ from each other by the levels of macrophage infiltrate, but not by changes in macrophage polarization.

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