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Non-oral, aerobic, Gram-negative bacilli in the oral cavity of Thai HIV-positive patients on Highly-active anti-retrovirus therapy medication

Journal article
Authors P. Arirachakaran
S. Luangworakhun
Georgios Charalampakis
Gunnar Dahlén
Published in Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Volume 10
Issue 2
ISSN 2041-1618
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Odontology
Language en
Keywords aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, antibiotic susceptibility, extended spectrum beta-lactamase, HAART, microbiome, health, rods
Subject categories Dentistry


In the present study, we identified and evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of 96 independent, aerobic, Gram-negative bacillus isolates from 255 Thai HIV-positive adults who were on Highly-active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) medication. Another 46 isolates from HIV non-HAART individuals, vertically transmitted HIV-positive individuals, and non-HIV controls were included for comparison. A total of 103 strains were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion for screening and E-test for minimal inhibitory concentration determination, with special attention on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas luteola, Burkholderia cepacia, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter species were the most common bacteria. All strains were resistant against penicillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, and metronidazole. No ESBL isolates were found.

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