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Young age and high BMI are predictors of early revision surgery after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study from the Swedish and Norwegian knee ligament registries based on 30,747 patients

Journal article
Authors Thorkell Snaebjörnsson
Eleonor Svantesson
David Sundemo
Olof Westin
Mikael Sansone
Lars Engebretsen
Eric Hamrin Senorski
Published in Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
ISSN 09422056
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Health and Rehabilitation
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics
Language en
Keywords Anterior cruciate ligament, Autograft, Body height, Body mass index, Body weight, Gender, Graft failure, Reconstruction, Registry, Revision, Smokeless tobacco, Smoking
Subject categories Orthopedics

Abstract

© 2019, The Author(s). Purpose: To analyse patient-related risk factors for 2-year ACL revision after primary reconstruction. The hypothesis was that younger athletes would have a higher incidence of an early ACL revision. Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on data from the Norwegian and Swedish National Knee Ligament Registries and included patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction from 2004 to 2014. The primary end-point was the 2-year incidence of ACL revision. The impact of activity at the time of injury, patient sex, age, height, weight, BMI, and tobacco usage on the incidence of early ACL revision were described by relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 58,692 patients were evaluated for eligibility and 30,591 patients were included in the study. The mean incidence of ACL revision within 2 years was 2.82% (95% CI 2.64–3.02%). Young age (13–19) was associated with an increased risk of early ACL revision (males RR = 1.54 [95% CI 1.27–1.86] p < 0.001 and females RR = 1.58 [95% CI 1.28–1.96] p < 0.001). Females over 1 SD in weight ran an increased risk of early ACL revision (RR = 1.82, [95% CI 1.15–2.88] p = 0.0099). Individuals with a BMI of over 25 ran an increased risk of early ACL revision (males: RR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.38–2.30] p < 0.001 and females: RR = 1.84, [95% CI 1.29–2.63] p = 0.008). Conclusion: Young age, a BMI over 25, and overweight females were risk factors for an early ACL revision. Level of evidence: II.

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