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Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

Journal article
Authors Juan Carlos Zamora
Måns Svensson
Roland Kirschner
Ibai Olariaga
Svengunnar Ryman
Luis Alberto Parra
József Geml
Anna Rosling
Slavomír Adamčík
Teuvo Ahti
M. Catherine Aime
A. Martyn Ainsworth
László Albert
Edgardo Albertó
Alberto Altés García
Dmitry Ageev
Reinhard Agerer
Begoña Aguirre-Hudson
Joe Ammirati
Harry Andersson
Claudio Angelini
Vladimír Antonín
Takayuki Aoki
André Aptroot
Didier Argaud
Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa
Arne Aronsen
Ulf Arup
Bita Asgari
Boris Assyov
Violeta Atienza
Ditte Bandini
João Luís Baptista-Ferreira
Hans Otto Baral
Tim Baroni
Robert Weingart Barreto
Henry Beker
Ann Bell
Jean Michel Bellanger
Francesco Bellù
Martin Bemmann
Mika Bendiksby
Egil Bendiksen
Katriina Bendiksen
Lajos Benedek
Anna Bérešová-Guttová
Franz Berger
Reinhard Berndt
Annarosa Bernicchia
Alona Yu Biketova
Enrico Bizio
Curtis Bjork
Teun Boekhout
David Boertmann
Tanja Böhning
Florent Boittin
Carlos G. Boluda
Menno W. Boomsluiter
Jan Borovička
Tor Erik Brandrud
Uwe Braun
Irwin Brodo
Tatiana Bulyonkova
Harold H. Burdsall
Bart Buyck
Ana Rosa Burgaz
Vicent Calatayud
Philippe Callac
Emanuele Campo
Massimo Candusso
Brigitte Capoen
Joaquim Carbó
Matteo Carbone
Rafael F. Castañeda-Ruiz
Michael A. Castellano
Jie Chen
Philippe Clerc
Giovanni Consiglio
Gilles Corriol
Régis Courtecuisse
Ana Crespo
Cathy Cripps
Pedro W. Crous
Gladstone Alves da Silva
Meiriele da Silva
Marjo Dam
Nico Dam
Frank Dämmrich
Kanad Das
Linda Davies
Eske De Crop
Andre De Kesel
Ruben De Lange
Bárbara De Madrignac Bonzi
Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz
Lynn Delgat
Vincent Demoulin
Dennis E. Desjardin
Paul Diederich
Bálint Dima
Maria Martha Dios
Pradeep Kumar Divakar
Clovis Douanla-Meli
Brian Douglas
Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Paul S. Dyer
Ursula Eberhardt
Damien Ertz
Fernando Esteve-Raventós
Javier Angel Etayo Salazar
Vera Evenson
Guillaume Eyssartier
Edit Farkas
Alain Favre
Anna G. Fedosova
Mario Filippa
Péter Finy
Adam Flakus
Simón Fos
Jacques Fournier
André Fraiture
Paolo Franchi
Ana Esperanza Franco Molano
Gernot Friebes
Andreas Frisch
Alan Fryday
Giuliana Furci
Ricardo Galán Márquez
Matteo Garbelotto
Joaquina María García-Martín
Mónica A. García Otálora
Dania García Sánchez
Alain Gardiennet
Sigisfredo Garnica
Isaac Garrido Benavent
Genevieve Gates
Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach
Masoomeh Ghobad- Nejhad
Tatiana B. Gibertoni
Tine Grebenc
Irmgard Greilhuber
Bella Grishkan
Johannes Z. Groenewald
Martin Grube
Gérald Gruhn
Cécile Gueidan
Gro Gulden
Luis Gusmao
Josef Hafellner
Michel Hairaud
Marek Halama
Nils Hallenberg
Roy E. Halling
Karen Hansen
Christoffer Bugge Harder
Jacob Heilmann-Clausen
Stip Helleman
Alain Henriot
Margarita Hernandez- Restrepo
Raphaël Herve
Caroline Hobart
Mascha Hoffmeister
Klaus Høiland
Jan Holec
Håkon Holien
Karen Hughes
Vit Hubka
Seppo Huhtinen
Boris Ivančević
Marian Jagers
Walter Jaklitsch
AnnaElise Jansen
Ruvishika S. Jayawardena
Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen
Mikael Jeppson
Peter Johnston
Per Magnus Jørgensen
Ingvar Kärnefelt
Liudmila B. Kalinina
Gintaras Kantvilas
Mitko Karadelev
Taiga Kasuya
Ivona Kautmanova
Richard W. Kerrigan
Martin Kirchmair
Anna Kiyashko
Dániel G. Knapp
Henning Knudsen
Kerry Knudsen
Tommy Knutsson
Miroslav Kolarik
Urmas Kõljalg
Alica Košuthová
Attila Koszka
Heikki Kotiranta
Vera Kotkova
Ondřej Koukol
Jiri Kout
Gábor M. Kovács
Martin Kříž
Åsa Kruys
Viktor Kučera
Linas Kudzma
Francisco Kuhar
Martin Kukwa
T. K. Arun Kumar
Vladimír Kunca
Ivana Kušan
Thomas W. Kuyper
Carlos Lado
Thomas Læssøe
Patrice Lainé
Ewald Langer
Ellen Larsson
Karl-Henrik Larsson
Gary Laursen
Published in IMA Fungus
Volume 9
Issue 1
Pages 167-175
ISSN 22106340
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 167-175
Language en
Keywords IMC11 nomenclature, Speciation, Taxonomy, Typification, Voucherless fungi
Subject categories Biological Sciences, Biological Systematics

Abstract

© 2018 International Mycological Association. Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.

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