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Two new bioluminescent Henlea from Siberia and lack of molecular support for Hepatogaster (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae)

Journal article
Authors E. Rota
Svante Martinsson
Christer Erséus
Published in Organisms Diversity & Evolution
Volume 18
Issue 3
Pages 291-312
ISSN 1439-6092
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 291-312
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13127-018-0374-...
Keywords New species, Henlea, Taxonomy, Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1, Histone 3, Hybridization, Phylogeny, Hepatogaster, Bioluminescence
Subject categories Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Abstract

Two bioluminescent enchytraeids, Henlea petushkovi sp. n. and Henlea rodionovae sp. n., are described from the Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk regions in Eastern Siberia. These large potworms exhibit the typical light-production pattern reported repeatedly in the genus and recently elucidated by Russian researchers in its main biophysical and biochemical aspects. Morphology and DNA indicate that the two species are very closely related, but clearly divergent in the strength of the body wall (thick and opaque in H. petushkovi), structure of the prostomium (in H. rodionovae unprecedentedly wrinkled and mobile), brain shape (almost equilateral in H. petushkovi), size of coelomocytes (60–85 μm in H. petushkovi) and structure of intestinal diverticula (tulip-shaped in H. petushkovi, apple-shaped in H. rodionovae). Limited hybridization seems to occur between them, supported by a single case of conflict between COI and morphology, and a few intermediate morphotypes were noted in greenhouse populations. The new species are phylogenetically distant from all known congeners so far DNA-barcoded, even those that, like them, respond to the diagnosis of the putative subgenus Hepatogaster Čejka, 1910 (multitubular gut diverticula in VIII, indented brain, dorsal blood vessel from IX, prominent spermathecal glands, and nephridia from 5/6). In fact, our phylogenetic analyses dismiss Hepatogaster as an artificial (polyphyletic) taxon. Issues related to the definition of H. nasuta (Eisen, 1878), H. ochracea (Eisen, 1878) and H. irkutensis Burov, 1929, three species originally described from Siberia, indicate that Henlea taxonomy is still in a state of flux, as regards not only species interrelationships but also species definitions.

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