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Fresh and Oxidized Emissions from In-Use Transit Buses Running on Diesel, Biodiesel, and CNG

Journal article
Authors Ågot Watne
Magda Psichoudaki
Evert Ljungström
Michael Le Breton
Mattias Hallquist
M. Jerksjo
H. Fallgren
S. Jutterstrom
A. M. Hallquist
Published in Environmental Science & Technology
Volume 52
Issue 14
Pages 7720-7728
ISSN 0013-936X
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 7720-7728
Language en
Keywords secondary organic aerosol, gasoline vehicle exhaust, particulate-emissions, ultrafine particles, engine technology, air-pollution, natural-gas, fuel, rme, oxidation, Engineering, Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Subject categories Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Climate Research, Environmental chemistry, Transport Systems and Logistics, Physical Chemistry


The potential effect of changing to a nonfossil fuel vehicle fleet was investigated by measuring primary emissions (by extractive sampling of bus plumes) and secondary mass formation, using a Gothenburg Potential Aerosol Mass (Go:PAM) reactor, from 29 in-use transit buses. Regarding fresh emissions, diesel (DSL) buses without a diesel particulate filter (DPF) emitted the highest median mass of particles, whereas compressed natural gas (CNG) buses emitted the lowest ((EFPM)-E-Md 514 and 11 mg kg(fuel)(-1) respectively). Rapeseed methyl ester (RME) buses showed smaller (EFPM)-E-Md and particle sizes than DSL buses. DSL (no DPF) and hybrid-electric RME (RMEHEV) buses exhibited the highest particle numbers ((EFPN)-E-Md 12 X 10(14) # kg(fuel)(-1)). RMEHEv buses displayed a significant nucleation mode (D-p < 20 nm). EFPN of CNG buses spanned the highest to lowest values measured. Low (EFPN)-E-Md and (EFPM)-E-Md were observed for a DPF-equipped DSL bus. Secondary particle formation resulting from exhaust aging was generally important for all the buses (79% showed an average EFPM:AGED/EF(PM)(:FRE)s H ratio >10) and fuel types tested, suggesting an important nonfuel dependent source. The results suggest that the potential for forming secondary mass should be considered in future fuel shifts, since the environmental impact is different when only considering the primary emissions.

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