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Copper release rate needed to inhibit fouling on the west coast of Sweden and control of copper release using zinc oxide

Journal article
Authors J. F. Lindgren
E. Ytreberg
A. Holmqvist
M. Dahlstrom
Peter Dahl
M. Berglin
A. L. Wrange
M. Dahlstrom
Published in Biofouling
Volume 34
Issue 4
Pages 453-463
ISSN 0892-7014
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 453-463
Language en
Keywords Biofouling, antifouling, X-ray fluorescence, release rate, copper, zinc, seawater-soluble pigments, antifouling paints, surface wettability, coatings, biocides, vessels, xrf, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Marine & Freshwater Biology
Subject categories Marine ecology, Microbiology, Ecology


How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively. All treatments that included copper were successful in deterring macrofouling, including the treatment with the lowest average Cu release rate, ie 4.68gcm(-2)day(-1).

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