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Development of a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two - the neuromotor 5 min exam 2-year-old version (N5E2).

Journal article
Authors Sayaka Aoki
Keiji Hashimoto
Hidetoshi Mezawa
Yuhei Hatakenaka
Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell
Narufumi Suganuma
Yukihiro Ohya
Philip Wilson
Elisabeth Fernell
Yoko Kamio
Christopher Gillberg
Published in Brain & development
Volume 40
Issue 6
Pages 445-451
ISSN 1872-7131
Publication year 2018
Published at Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre
Pages 445-451
Language en
Keywords Developmental disabilities; Inter-rater reliability; Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS); Neuromotor development; Screening; Young children
Subject categories Child and adolescent psychiatry


As a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two, we developed the Neuromotor 5 min Exam 2-year-old version (N5E2), which can be easily administered by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this study, as an initial attempt to examine the utility of the N5E2, the inter-rater reliability on scoring for the individual items in this scale was assessed.The participants of the study were 29 children (aged 1-5 years, mean age = 2.79) diagnosed with a variety of neuromotor/developmental disorders/high-risk conditions. Inter-rater reliability was examined on the following 11 items in the N5E2: (1) Retrieving a rolling ball, (2) Gait, (3) Toe-walking, (4) Asymmetries of posture and/or movement, (5) Age at unsupported walking, (6) Speaking in two-word understandable sentences, (7) Hypotonus, (8) Hypertonus, (9) Eye movement, (10) Vision problem, (11) Hearing problem. The items were administered to children by two pediatricians with different expertise and clinical experience, separately.The results showed that among the eleven items in the N5E2 examined, a high level of agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) was found on 4 items, and a moderate level of agreement (0.40 ≤ κ < 0.60) was found on 5 items. The level of agreement somewhat improved after the dichotomization of the score; using this format, a high level of rater agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) was found on 6 out of 11 items. The analyses also revealed high inter-rater reliability on the sum score of the 11 items (r = 0.84).The results suggest the possibility that this brief screening tool could be feasible in settings where clinicians' experience varies, based on its inter-rater reliability on individual items between the clinicians with different expertise and amount of clinical experiences.

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