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The PROIEL treebank family: a standard for early attestations of Indo-European languages

Journal article
Authors H. Eckhoff
K. Bech
Gerlof Bouma
K. Eide
D. Haug
O. E. Haugen
M. Johndal
Published in Language Resources and Evaluation
Volume 52
Issue 1
Pages 29-65
ISSN 1574-020X
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Swedish
Pages 29-65
Language en
Keywords Treebank, Dependency grammar, Indo-European, Greek, Latin, Romance, Germanic, Slavic, Armenian, Computer Science
Subject categories Languages and Literature


This article describes a family of dependency treebanks of early attestations of Indo-European languages originating in the parallel treebank built by the members of the project pragmatic resources in old Indo-European languages. The treebanks all share a set of open-source software tools, including a web annotation interface, and a set of annotation schemes and guidelines developed especially for the project languages. The treebanks use an enriched dependency grammar scheme complemented by detailed morphological tags, which have proved sufficient to give detailed descriptions of these richly inflected languages, and which have been easy to adapt to new languages. We describe the tools and annotation schemes and discuss some challenges posed by the various languages that have been annotated. We also discuss problems with tokenisation, sentence division and lemmatisation, commonly encountered in ancient and mediaeval texts, and challenges associated with low levels of standardisation and ongoing morphological and syntactic change.

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