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Developing and evaluating an instrument to measure Recovery After INtensive care: The RAIN instrument

Journal article
Authors Ingegerd Bergbom
Veronika Karlsson
Mona Ringdal
Published in BMC Nursing
Volume 17
Issue 5
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Health and Care Sciences
Language en
Keywords Factor analysis, Intensive care recovery, Recovery, Recovery questionnaire
Subject categories Nursing, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care


© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Measuring and evaluating patients' recovery, following intensive care, is essential for assessing their recovery process. By using a questionnaire, which includes spiritual and existential aspects, possibilities for identifying appropriate nursing care activities may be facilitated. The study describes the development and evaluation of a recovery questionnaire and its validity and reliability. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 30 items on a 5-point Likert scale was completed by 169 patients (103 men, 66 women), 18 years or older (m=69, SD 12.5) at 2, 6, 12 or 24 months following discharge from an ICU. An exploratory factor analysis, including a principal component analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation, was conducted. Ten initial items, with loadings below 0.40, were removed. The internal item/scale structure obtained in the principal component analysis was tested in relation to convergent and discrimination validity with a multi-trait analysis. Items consistency and reliability were assessed by Cronbach's alpha and internal item consistency. Test of scale quality, the proportion of missing values and respondents' scoring at maximum and minimum levels were also conducted. Results: A total of 20 items in six factors - forward looking, supporting relations, existential ruminations, revaluation of life, physical and mental strength and need of social support were extracted with eigen values above one. Together, they explained 75% of the variance. The half-scale criterion showed that the proportion of incomplete scale scores ranged from 0% to 4.3%. When testing the scale's ability to differentiate between levels of the assessed concept, we found that the observed range of scale scores covered the theoretical range. Substantial proportions of respondents, who scored at the ceiling for forward looking and supporting relations and at floor for the need of social support, were found. These findings should be further investigated. Conclusion: The factor analysis, including discriminant validity and the mean value for the item correlations, was found to be excellent. The RAIN instrument could be used to assess recovery following intensive care. It could provide post-ICU clinics and community/primary healthcare nurses with valuable information on which areas patients may need more support.

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