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Adolescents and female patients are at increased risk for contralateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register based on 17,682 patients

Journal article
Authors Thorkell Snaebjörnsson
Eric Hamrin Senorski
David Sundemo
Eleonor Svantesson
Olof Westin
Volker Musahl
Eduard Alentorn-Geli
Kristian Samuelsson
Published in Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Volume 25
Issue 12
Pages 3938-3944
ISSN 0942-2056
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Health and Rehabilitation
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics
Pages 3938-3944
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-017-4517-...
Keywords ACL, Anterior cruciate ligament, Autograft, Contralateral, Knee, Registry, Surgical predictors
Subject categories Orthopedics

Abstract

© 2017, The Author(s). Purpose: The impact of different surgical techniques in index ACL reconstruction for patients undergoing contralateral ACL reconstruction was investigated. Methods: The study was based on data from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register. Patients undergoing index ACL reconstruction and subsequent contralateral ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft under the study period were included. The following variables were evaluated: age at index surgery, gender, concomitant meniscal or cartilage injury registered at index injury, transportal femoral bone tunnel drilling and transtibial femoral bone tunnel drilling. The end-point of primary contralateral ACL surgery was analysed as well as the time-to-event outcomes using survivorship methods including Kaplan–Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 17,682 patients [n = 10,013 males (56.6%) and 7669 females (43.4%)] undergoing primary ACL reconstruction from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014 were included in the study. A total of 526 (3.0%) patients [n = 260 males (49.4%) and 266 females (50.6%)] underwent primary contralateral ACL reconstruction after index ACL reconstruction during the study period. Females had a 33.7% greater risk of contralateral ACL surgery [HR 1.337 (95% CI 1.127–1.586); (P = 0 0.001)]. The youngest age group (13–15 years) showed an increased risk of contralateral ACL surgery compared with the reference (36–49) age group [HR 2.771 (95% CI 1.456–5.272); (P = 0.002)] . Decreased risk of contralateral ACL surgery was seen amongst patients with concomitant cartilage injury at index surgery [HR 0.765 (95% CI 0.623–0.939); (P = 0.010)]. No differences in terms of the risk of contralateral ACL surgery were found between anatomic and non-anatomic techniques of primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction, comparing transportal anatomic technique to transtibial non-anatomic, anatomic and partial-anatomic. Conclusion: Age and gender were identified as risk factors for contralateral ACL reconstruction; hence young individuals and females were more prone to undergo contralateral ACL reconstruction. Patients with concomitant cartilage injury at index ACL reconstruction had lower risk for contralateral ACL reconstruction. No significant differences between various ACL reconstruction techniques could be related to increased risk of contralateral ACL reconstruction. Level of evidence: Retrospective Cohort Study, Level III.

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