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‘Normalized’ Pride? Pride parade participants in six European countries

Journal article
Authors Abby Peterson
Mattias Wahlström
Magnus Wennerhag
Published in Sexualities
Volume 21
Issue 7
Pages 1146-1169
ISSN 1363-4607
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Sociology and Work Science
Centre for European Research (CERGU)
Pages 1146-1169
Language en
Keywords LGBT movements, normalization of demonstrations, Pride parades, protest participation, protest survey
Subject categories Research on Europe, Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)


Based on quantitative survey data collected during Pride parades in six European countries – the Czech Republic, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland – we analyse who participates in Pride parades. Engaging with the so-called protest normalization thesis we ask: are Pride parade participants, aside from sexual orientation, representative of the wider populace? In none of the countries could we find indications that Pride participants mirror the general populations. The parades remain dominated by well-educated, middle strata youth, rich in political resources. However, we find variation between countries, which we link to differences in elite and public support for LGBT rights.

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