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Prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder, and controls

Journal article
Authors Laura Cremaschi
Mathias Kardell
V. Johansson
Anniella Isgren
C. M. Sellgren
A. C. Altamura
C. M. Hultman
Mikael Landén
Published in Psychiatry Research
Volume 258
Pages 9-14
ISSN 0165-1781
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Pages 9-14
Language en
Keywords Bipolar disorder, Epidemiology, Neuroimmunology, Schizophrenia, lithium salt, adult, aged, Article, autoimmune disease, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, case control study, comparative study, controlled study, disease association, female, high risk population, human, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, immunopathogenesis, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, major clinical study, male, prevalence, priority journal, rheumatic polymyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, self report, structured interview, systemic lupus erythematosus
Subject categories Neurology


Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

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