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Understanding Plastid Vesicle Transport - Could it Provide Benefit for Human Medicine?

Journal article
Authors N. Z. Khan
Emelie Lindquist
Mohamed Alezzawi
Henrik Aronsson
Published in Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 17
Issue 13
Pages 1128-1139
ISSN 1389-5575
Publication year 2017
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 1128-1139
Language en
Links doi.org/10.2174/1389557516666160906...
Keywords Chloroplast, disease, human, Rab, Sar, transport, vesicle, CHYLOMICRON RETENTION DISEASE, THYLAKOID MEMBRANE FORMATION, PROTEIN, DISULFIDE-ISOMERASE, NUCLEOTIDE-EXCHANGE FACTORS, BIOGENESIS FACTOR, CYO1, ER-GOLGI INTERFACE, ANEMIA TYPE-II, ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM, RAB, GTPASES, CHLOROPLAST DEVELOPMENT
Subject categories Medicinal Chemistry

Abstract

Background: In plants, vesicle transport occurs in the secretory pathway in the cytosol, between the membranes of different compartments. Several protein components have been identified to be involved in the process and their functions were characterized. Both cargos and other molecules (such as hormones) have been shown to use vesicle transport, although the major constituents of vesicles are lipids which are transferred from donor to acceptor membranes. In humans, malfunction of the cytosolic vesicle transport system leads to different diseases. Method: To better understand and ultimately cure these human diseases, studying other model systems such as yeast can be beneficial. Plants with their cytosolic vesicle transport system could serve as another model system. However, this review focuses on plant vesicles not present in the cytosol but in the chloroplasts, where lipids produced in the surrounding envelope are transported through the aqueous stroma to the thylakoid membranes. Although chloroplast vesicles have found both biochemical and ultrastructural support, only two proteins have been characterized as components of the pathway. However, using bioinformatics a number of other proteins have been suggested as homologs to the cytosolic system. Results & Conclusion: Based on these findings vesicles of chloroplasts are likely most similar to the vesicles trafficking from ER to Golgi, or may even be unique, but important experimental support is yet lacking. In this review, proposed vesicle transport components in chloroplasts are presented, and their possible future implementation for human medicine is discussed.

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