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Mechanical load, sex hormones, and bone modeling

Chapter in book
Authors Sara H Windahl
Ulf H Lerner
Published in Biological mechanisms of tooth movement. Vinod Krishnan, Ze'ev Davidovitch (eds.)
Pages 82-96
ISBN 9781118916148
Publisher Wiley
Publication year 2015
Published at Institute of Medicine
Pages 82-96
Language en
Keywords Bone modeling, Mechanical load, Membrane-bound receptors, Osteoblast differentiation, Osteoclast differentiation, Osteoclast formation, Sex hormone
Subject categories Orthodontics


Skeletal tissue is made up of two structurally different types of bones: cortical (compact) bone, forming an outer shell in all flat and long bones, and cancellous (trabecular) bone arranged in spicules in the inner marrow cavity of bones. Interestingly, bone cells are also controlled by signaling molecules in the peripheral and central nervous system such as catecholamines and serotonin, and by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Differentiated osteoblasts are the cells that form new bone, and at the same time are crucial for differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. It has been found that receptors for most hormones and cytokines stimulating osteoclast formation are expressed by osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes respond to mechanical load through membrane-bound receptors. The sex hormone receptors contain stretches of amino acids called nuclear localization signals, which cooperate in the transfer of the steroid receptors to the nucleus where they are mainly located in most cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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