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The Influence of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco on the Progression, Severity and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

Journal article
Authors K. K. Rauwolf
Kristina Berglund
Ulf Berggren
Jan Balldin
Claudia Fahlke
Published in Alcohol and Alcoholism
Volume 52
Issue 4
Pages 477-482
ISSN 0735-0414
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Department of Psychology
Pages 477-482
Language en
Keywords nicotine dependence, cigarette-smoking, use disorders, relapse, predictors, abstinence, criteria, health, allele, sample, Substance Abuse, merleau cs, 1987, psychophysiology, v24, p278, lellan at, 1992, journal of substance abuse treatment, v9, p199
Subject categories Psychiatry, Psychology


The influence of tobacco use in alcohol-dependent individuals is not well understood, especially the role of snuffing, which is common in Northern Europe. The aim was therefore to investigate the influence of smoking and snuffing on the progression, severity and treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent individuals. The hypotheses were that concomitant tobacco use (i.e. smoking or snuffing) would enhance the progression and severity of alcohol dependence and be less beneficial for treatment outcome, relative to tobacco non-users. Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 347) were recruited from three treatment units specialized in alcohol use disorders. Participants were interviewed about their current and past alcohol and tobacco use at treatment entry and at a follow-up interview 2.5 years thereafter. The tobacco users (smokers and snuffers) had an earlier alcohol debut compared to the tobacco never-users. Snuffers reported regular alcohol consumption and inebriation at an earlier age in contrast to smokers and tobacco never-users. There were no difference between the groups regarding treatment outcome. This study highlights the importance of studying not only the influence of smoking but also of snuffing on the progression, severity and treatment outcome in individuals with alcohol dependence.

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