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omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases

Journal article
Authors Y. Gong
Z. J. Fu
R. Liegl
J. Chen
Ann Hellström
L. E. H. Smith
Published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume 106
Issue 1
Pages 16-26
ISSN 0002-9165
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Pages 16-26
Language en
Links doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.153825
Keywords lipid metabolism, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, polyunsaturated fatty-acids, vascular endothelial-cells, proliferative, diabetic-retinopathy, randomized controlled-trial, macular degeneration, docosahexaenoic acid, choroidal neovascularization, preterm infants, lipid mediators, growth-factor, Nutrition & Dietetics, evens mk, 1988, journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism, v8, p790
Subject categories Clinical Medicine

Abstract

Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. The omega-3 LC-PUFA metabolites from 2 groups of enzymes, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, inhibit [and the omega-6 (n-6) LC-PUFA metabolites promote] inflammation and angiogenesis. However, both of the omega-3 and the omega-6 lipid products of cytochrome P450 oxidase 2C promote neovascularization in both the retina and choroid, which suggests that inhibition of this pathway might be beneficial. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 LC-PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.

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