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Range of Hip Joint Motion Is Correlated With MRI-Verified Cam Deformity in Adolescent Elite Skiers

Journal article
Authors C. Agnvall
Amina Swärd Aminoff
C. Todd
Pall Jonasson
Olof Thoreson
Leif Swärd
Jon Karlsson
Adad Baranto
Published in Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume 5
Issue 6
ISSN 2325-9671
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Section for Anesthesiology, Biomaterials and Orthopaedics, Department of Orthopaedics
Language en
Links doi.org/10.1177/2325967117711890
Keywords cam-type FAI, skiers, range of motion, hip joint, nationwide prospective cohort, ice hockey players, femoroacetabular, impingement, clinical presentation, sagittal configuration, acetabular, cartilage, osteoarthritis, reliability, validity, prevalence, Sport Sciences
Subject categories Orthopedics


Background: Radiologically verified cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been shown to correlate with reduced internal rotation, reduced passive hip flexion, and a positive anterior impingement test. Purpose: To validate how a clinical examination of the hip joint correlates with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-verified cam deformity in adolescents. Methods: The sample group consisted of 102 adolescents with the mean age 17.7 +/- 1.4 years. The hip joints were examined using MRI for measurements of the presence of cam (alpha-angle >55) and clinically for range of motion (ROM) in both supine and sitting positions. The participants were divided into a cam and a noncam group based on the results of the MRI examination. Passive hip flexion, internal rotation, anterior impingement, and the FABER (flexion, abduction, and external rotation) test were used to test both hips in the supine position. With the participant sitting, the internal/external rotation of the hip joint was measured in 3 different positions of the pelvis (neutral, maximum anteversion, and retroversion) and lumbar spine (neutral, maximum extension, and flexion). Results: Differences were found between the cam and noncam groups in terms of the anterior impingement test (right, P = .010; left, P = .006), passive supine hip flexion (right: mean, 5; cam, 117; noncam, 122 [P = .05]; and left: mean, 8.5; cam, 116; noncam, 124.5 [P = .001]), supine internal rotation (right: mean, 4.9; cam, 24; noncam, 29 [P = .022]; and left: mean, 4.8; cam, 26; noncam, 31 [P = .028]), sitting internal rotation with the pelvis and lumbar spine in neutral (right: mean, 7.95; cam, 29; noncam, 37 [P = .001]; and left: mean, 6.5; cam, 31.5; noncam, 38 [P = .006]), maximum anteversion of the pelvis and extension of the lumbar spine (right: mean, 5.2; cam, 20; noncam, 25 [P = .004]; and left: mean, 5.85; cam, 20.5; noncam, 26.4 [P = .004]), and maximum retroversion of the pelvis and flexion of the spine (right: mean, 8.4; cam, 32.5; noncam, 41 [P = .001]; and left: mean, 6.2; cam, 36; noncam, 42.3 [P = .012]). The cam group had reduced ROM compared with the noncam group in all clinical ROM measures. Conclusion: The presence of cam deformity on MRI correlates with reduced internal rotation in the supine and sitting positions, passive supine hip flexion, and the impingement test in adolescents.

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