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Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

Journal article
Authors N. Matikainen
S. Soderlund
Elias Björnson
L. H. Bogl
K. H. Pietilainen
A. Hakkarainen
N. Lundbom
Björn Eliasson
S. M. Rasanen
A. Rivellese
L. Patti
A. Prinster
G. Riccardi
J. P. Despres
N. Almeras
J. J. Holst
C. F. Deacon
J. Boren
M. R. Taskinen
Published in Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume 27
Issue 6
Pages 534-542
ISSN 0939-4753
Publication year 2017
Published at Wallenberg Laboratory
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 534-542
Language en
Keywords Glucagon-like peptide 1, Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, Fructose intervention, insulin sensitivity, sweetened beverages, visceral fat, corn syrup, intrahepatic lipids, diabetes-mellitus, liver fat, consumption, humans, sucrose, Cardiovascular System & Cardiology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Nutrition & Dietetics
Subject categories Cardiovascular medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Nutrition and Dietetics


Background and aims: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. Methods and results: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). Conclusion: In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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