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Relationship between mercury in kidney, blood, and urine in environmentally exposed individuals, and implications for biomonitoring

Journal article
Authors Magnus Åkerström
Lars Barregård
T. Lundh
Gerd Sällsten
Published in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume 320
Pages 17-25
ISSN 0041-008X
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Occupational and environmental medicine
Pages 17-25
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2017.02.0...
Keywords Mercury, Biomonitoring, Urine, Blood, Plasma, Kidney, DENTAL AMALGAM FILLINGS, OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE, EXCRETION, VAPOR, CADMIUM, POPULATION, WORKERS, ASSOCIATIONS, CLEARANCE, PROTEINS, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Toxicology
Subject categories Pharmacology and Toxicology

Abstract

Background: Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). Objectives: The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Hg was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There were strong associations between K-Hg and all measures of U-Hg and P-Hg (r(p) = 0.65-0.84, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Hg was weaker (rp = 029, p = 0.002). Mean ratios between K-Hg (in mu g/g) and U-Hg/24h (in pg) and B-Hg (in mu g/L) were 0.22 and 0.19 respectively. Estimates of the biological half-time varied between 30 and 92 days, with significantly slower elimination in women. Adjusting overnight urine samples for dilution using urinary creatinine resulted in less bias in relation to K-Hg or U-Hg/24h, compared with other adjustment techniques. Conclusions: The relationship between K-Hg and U-Hg is approximately linear. K-Hg can be estimated using U-Hg and gender. Women have longer half-time of Hg in kidney compared to men. Adjusting overnight urine samples for creatinine concentration resulted in less bias. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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