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Kinetics of antibody-secreting cell and fecal IgA responses after oral cholera vaccination in different age groups in a cholera endemic country

Journal article
Authors M. Akhtar
F. Qadri
T. R. Bhuiyan
S. Akter
T. A. Rafique
A. Khan
L. N. Islam
A. Saha
Ann-Mari Svennerholm
Anna Lundgren
Published in Vaccine
Volume 35
Issue 2
Pages 321-328
ISSN 0264-410X
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Pages 321-328
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.1...
Keywords Antibody-secreting cell, Antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant, IgA, Oral vaccine, Cholera, Children, ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA-COLI, B-SUBUNIT VACCINE, INTESTINAL, IMMUNE-RESPONSES, IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY, PERIPHERAL-BLOOD, TYPHOID, VACCINE, DOUBLE-BLIND, BREAST-MILK, PHASE-I, IMMUNOGENICITY
Subject categories Immunology in the medical area

Abstract

Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine. Two vaccine doses were given 2 weeks apart to infants (6-11 months), young children (12-18 months), toddlers (19 months-5 years) and adults in a cholera endemic country (Bangladesh). IgA ASC responses, as determined by the antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay, plasma IgA and IgG responses and secretory IgA (SIgA) responses in extracts of fecal samples were evaluated 4/5 and 7 days after each vaccination. After the first vaccine dose, anti-CTB ALS IgA responses in adults and toddlers were high and comparable on day 5 and 7, while responses were low and infrequent in young children. After the second dose, highest ALS responses were detected on day 5 among the time points studied in all age groups and the responses declined until day 7. In contrast, plasma IgA and IgG anti-CTB responses were high both on day 5 and 7 after the second dose. Fecal SIgA responses in young children and infants were highest on day 7 after the second dose. Our results suggest that ASC/ALS responses to two doses of the oral cholera vaccine Dukoral and related oral vaccines should be analyzed earlier than previously recommended (day 7) at all ages. Fecal antibody responses should preferably be analyzed later than ASC/ALS responses to detect the highest antibody responses. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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