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Gene duplications and losses among vertebrate deoxyribonucleoside kinases of the non-TK1 Family.

Journal article
Authors Zeeshan Mutahir
Louise Slot Christiansen
Anders R Clausen
Martin W Berchtold
Zoran Gojkovic
Birgitte Munch-Petersen
Wolfgang Knecht
Jure Piškur
Published in Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids
Volume 35
Issue 10-12
Pages 677-690
ISSN 1532-2335
Publication year 2016
Published at
Pages 677-690
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2016.11...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Biochemistry, Evolutionary Biology

Abstract

Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs) and catalyze the rate limiting step of this salvage pathway by converting dNs into corresponding monophosphate forms. These enzymes serve as an excellent model to study duplicated genes and their evolutionary history. So far, among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). In this study, we characterized a family of dCK/deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK)-like enzymes from a frog Xenopus laevis and a bird Gallus gallus. We showed that X. laevis has a duplicated dCK gene and a dGK gene, whereas G. gallus has a duplicated dCK gene but has lost the dGK gene. We cloned, expressed, purified, and subsequently determined the kinetic parameters of the dCK/dGK enzymes encoded by these genes. The two dCK enzymes in G. gallus have broader substrate specificity than their human or X. laevis counterparts. Additionally, the duplicated dCK enzyme in G. gallus might have become mitochondria. Based on our study we postulate that changing and adapting substrate specificities and subcellular localization are likely the drivers behind the evolution of vertebrate dNKs.

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