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Inflammatory cell response to ultra-thin amorphous and crystalline hydroxyapatite surfaces.

Journal article
Authors Louise Rydén
Omar Omar
Anna Johansson
Ryo Jimbo
Anders Palmquist
Peter Thomsen
Published in Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 9
ISSN 1573-4838
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 9
Language en
Subject categories Biomaterials Science


It has been suggested that surface modification with a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) coating enhances the osseointegration of titanium implants. However, there is insufficient information about the biological processes involved in the HA-induced response. This study aimed to investigate the inflammatory cell response to titanium implants with either amorphous or crystalline thin HA. Human mononuclear cells were cultured on titanium discs with a machined surface or with a thin, 0.1 μm, amorphous or crystalline HA coating. Cells were cultured for 24 and 96 h, with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The surfaces were characterized with respect to chemistry, phase composition, wettability and topography. Biological analyses included the percentage of implant-adherent cells and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and growth factors (BMP-2 and TGF-β1). Crystalline HA revealed a smooth surface, whereas the amorphous HA displayed a porous structure, at nano-scale, and a hydrophobic surface. Higher TNF-α secretion and a higher ratio of adherent cells were demonstrated for the amorphous HA compared with the crystalline HA. TGF-β1 secretion was detected in all groups, but without any difference. No BMP-2 secretion was detected in any of the groups. The addition of LPS resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α in all groups, whereas TGF-β1 was not affected. Taken together, the results show that thin HA coatings with similar micro-roughness but a different phase composition, nano-scale roughness and wettability are associated with different monocyte responses. In the absence of strong inflammatory stimuli, crystalline hydroxyapatite elicits a lower inflammatory response compared with amorphous hydroxyapatite.

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