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Oral Care and Mortality in Older Adults with Pneumonia in Hospitals or Nursing Homes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Journal article
Authors P. Sjogren
I. Wardh
M. Zimmerman
Annica Almståhl
Maude Wikström
Published in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 64
Issue 10
Pages 2109-2115
ISSN 0002-8614
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Odontology
Institute of Odontology, Section 3
Pages 2109-2115
Language en
Keywords dentistry, elderly, nursing home, pneumonia, systematic review, aspiration pneumonia, health-care, residents, hygiene, disease, sweden, risk, Geriatrics & Gerontology
Subject categories Dentistry

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to compare the effect of intensified oral care interventions given by dental or nursing personnel on mortality from healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP) in elderly adults in hospitals or nursing homes with the effect of usual oral care. Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Health Technology Assessment database of the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (August 2015). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for inclusion. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed independently and agreed on in consensus meetings. Five RCTs, with some or major study limitations, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Based on meta-analyses, oral care interventions given by dental personnel reduced mortality from HAP (risk ratio (RR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.25-0.76, P = .003), whereas oral care interventions given by nursing personnel did not result in a statistically significant difference in mortality from HAP (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.97-1.48, P = .09), in elderly adults in hospitals or nursing homes from usual oral care. Oral care interventions given by dental personnel may reduce mortality from HAP (low certainty of evidence, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) circle plus circle plus oo), whereas oral care interventions given by nursing personnel probably result in little or no difference from usual care (moderate certainty of evidence, GRADE circle plus circle plus circle plus o) in elderly adults in hospitals or nursing homes.

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