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Manganese accumulation and solid-phase speciation in a 3.5 m thick mud sequence from the estuary of an acidic and Mn-rich creek, northern Baltic Sea

Journal article
Authors C. X. Yu
J. J. Virtasalo
P. Osterholm
E. D. Burton
P. Peltola
A. E. K. Ojala
Johan Hogmalm
M. E. Astrom
Published in Chemical Geology
Volume 437
Pages 56-66
ISSN 0009-2541
Publication year 2016
Published at Department of Earth Sciences
Pages 56-66
Language en
Keywords Estuarine sediments, Mn speciation, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Rhodochrosite, Acid sulfate soil, ray-absorption spectroscopy, ferruginous lake matano, anoxic, marine-sediments, sulfate soil runoff, black-shale basins, organic-matter, western finland, iron reduction, icp-ms, sulfide, Geochemistry & Geophysics
Subject categories Earth and Related Environmental Sciences


In sediments, manganese (Mn) is typically enriched in the form of authigenic Mn hydroxides at the water-sediment interface where intensive redox cycling of Mn occurs. Here we show, based on existing hydrochemical and geochemical (sediment core) data and new detailed chemical and mineralogical characterization of a 3.5 m long sediment core from a Boreal estuary, that the behavior of Mn can be profoundly different and more complex in estuarine settings receiving an abundance of terrestrial Mn. The most notable feature in the 3.5 m long sediment core is two depth intervals (60-155 cm and 181-230 cm) where there are strong fine-scale variations in Mn concentrations with peaks episodically reaching up to 10-25 g kg(-1) and 6.7-12 g kg(-1), respectively. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and sequential chemical extraction show that Mn occurs mainly as authigenic rhodochrosite at these two depth intervals and is mainly surface-sorbed in other sections with relatively low and stable Mn concentrations. The data suggests that the strong fine-scale variations in Mn concentrations are a reflection of the extent of formation and settling of Mn hydroxides, the precursors of the authigenic rhodochrosite (and also of the surface-sorbed Mn), rather than Mn input to the estuary or redox-related Mn translocation within the sediment. There was agreement between the results of linear combination fitting of extended X-ray absorption fine structure data and a 7-step sequential chemical extraction (SCE) in terms of quantification of surface-sorbed Mn species, whereas the SCE experiment failed to fractionate a majority of rhodochrosite into SCE step-2 (1M NH4-acetate at pH 6), which is frequently employed to dissolve carbonate. We ascribe this discrepancy to only partial dissolution of rhodochrosite in the weakly acidic (pH = 6) NH4-acetate leach.

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