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Cardiorespiratory upregulation during seawater acclimation in rainbow trout: effects on gastrointestinal perfusion and postprandial responses

Journal article
Authors Jeroen Brijs
Albin Gräns
Andreas Ekström
Catharina Olsson
Michael Axelsson
Erik Sandblom
Published in American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume 310
Issue 9
Pages R858-R865
ISSN 0363-6119
Publication year 2016
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages R858-R865
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00536.20...
Keywords saltwater, gut blood flow, cardiovascular, feeding, metabolic rate, ACID-BASE REGULATION, GUT BLOOD-FLOW, ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS, FRESH-WATER, OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION, SALMO-GAIRDNERI, ALKALINE TIDE, BICARBONATE, SECRETION, METABOLIC-RESPONSE, DYNAMIC ACTION
Subject categories Animal physiology

Abstract

Increased gastrointestinal blood flow is essential for euryhaline fishes to maintain osmotic homeostasis during the initial phase of a transition from freshwater to seawater. However, the cardiorespiratory responses and hemodynamic changes required for a successful long-term transition to seawater remain largely unknown. In the present study, we simultaneously measured oxygen consumption rate ((M)over dot(O2)), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to either freshwater or seawater for at least 6 wk. Seawater-acclimated trout displayed significantly elevated ((M)over dot(O2)) (day: 18%, night: 19%), CO (day: 22%, night: 48%), and GBF (day: 96%, night: 147%), demonstrating that an overall cardiorespiratory upregulation occurs during seawater acclimation. The elevated GBF was achieved via a combination of increased CO, mediated through elevated stroke volume (SV), and a redistribution of blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, virtually all of the increase in CO of seawater-acclimated trout was directed to the gastrointestinal tract. Although unfed seawater-acclimated trout displayed substantially elevated cardiorespiratory activity, the ingestion of a meal resulted in a similar specific dynamic action (SDA) and postprandial GBF response as in freshwater-acclimated fish. This indicates that the capacity for the transportation of absorbed nutrients, gastrointestinal tissue oxygen delivery, and acid-base regulation is maintained during digestion in seawater. The novel findings presented in this study clearly demonstrate that euryhaline fish upregulate cardiovascular function when in seawater, while retaining sufficient capacity for the metabolic and cardiovascular changes associated with the postprandial response.

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