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Effects of antimycotics and fungicides to limnic microbial biofilms – a case study of the run-off from a golf course

Conference contribution
Authors Åsa Arrhenius
Britt Wassmur
Mats X. Andersson
Mikael Gustavsson
Jörgen Magnèr
Lars Edler
Thomas Backhaus
Published in 4th Biofilm Workshop - Basis and application of biofilms to assess the effects of environmental change in aquatic ecosystems - Girona, 7-8 April 2016
Publication year 2016
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Language en
Subject categories Biological Sciences, Environmental toxicology


Antimycotic pharmaceuticals and fungicides are widely used for treating fungal infections in humans and animals and control pests in different areas and applications. They enter the aquatic environment either after passage through the body, or after being rinsed off from areas of application (skin, crops, farmland etc.). However, substantial knowledge gaps currently hamper a proper environmental risk assessment of the individual antimycotics and fungicides and their mixtures for marine and freshwater environments. Previously it has been shown that clotrimazole, a marine priority pollutant, affected sterol composition of marine microalgal communities already at 50 pmol/L which indicates effects at environmental concentrations. In this presentation we will discuss results from our work with limnic microbial biofilms and effects from antimycotics and fungicides individually and as mixtures. Endpoints include growth, pigment pattern, sterol composition, and species composition. Special focus will be on a case study from a Swedish golf course with a high usage of fungicides. Based on an analytical survey we prepared a worst-case-mixture study were we exposed biofilms in indoor microcosms for several days. Effects on growth and some shifts in microalgal species composition could be observed at concentrations relevant for the nearby golf area. Analysis of sterol composition and analytical confirmation of exposure concentrations are work in progress. The work is performed within the Swedish Formas-funded project “Aquatic Environmental Risk Assessment of Antimycotics”.

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