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The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos

Journal article
Authors Felix Sommer
Marcus Ståhlman
O. Ilkayeva
J. M. Arnemo
J. Kindberg
J. Josefsson
C. B. Newgard
O. Frobert
Fredrik Bäckhed
Published in Cell Reports
Volume 14
Issue 7
Pages 1655-1661
ISSN 2211-1247
Publication year 2016
Published at Wallenberg Laboratory
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 1655-1661
Language en
Keywords weight-loss, obesity, acid, diet, fermentation, americanus, resistance, diversity, ecology, alters, Cell Biology
Subject categories Clinical Medicine


Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance, suggesting that seasonal variation in the microbiota may contribute to host energy metabolism in the hibernating brown bear.

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