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Polymorphisms in genes in the androgen pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

Journal article
Authors W. E. Ek
K. Lagergren
M. Cook
A. H. Wu
C. C. Abnet
D. Levine
W. H. Chow
L. Bernstein
H. A. Risch
N. J. Shaheen
N. C. Bird
D. A. Corley
L. J. Hardie
R. C. Fitzgerald
M. D. Gammon
Y. Romero
G. Liu
W. M. Ye
T. L. Vaughan
S. MacGregor
D. C. Whiteman
Lars Westberg
J. Lagergren
Published in International Journal of Cancer
Volume 138
Issue 5
Pages 1146-1152
ISSN 0020-7136
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology
Pages 1146-1152
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29863
Keywords genome-wide association study, Barrett esophagus, esophageal neoplasms, neoplasm, hormones, genome-wide association, gastroesophageal-reflux, abdominal obesity, cancer-risk, metaanalysis, hormones, disease, cyp17, locus, men, Oncology
Subject categories Cancer and Oncology

Abstract

The strong male predominance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains inadequately explained, but sex hormones might be involved. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen pathway influence risk of developing BE and EAC. This genetic-epidemiological analysis included 14 studies from Australia, Europe and North America. Polymorphisms in 16 genes coding for the androgen pathway were analyzed using a gene-based approach: versatile gene-based test association study. This method evaluates associations between a trait and all SNPs within a specific gene rather than each SNP marker individually as in a conventional GWAS. The data were stratified for sex, body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, tobacco smoking and gastroesophageal reflux status. Included were data from 1,508 EAC patients, 2,383 BE patients and 2,170 control participants. SNPs within the gene CYP17A1 were associated with risk of BE in the sexes combined (p=0.002) and in males (p=0.003), but not in females separately (p=0.3). This association was found in tobacco smokers (p=0.003) and in BE patients without reflux (p=0.004), but not in nonsmokers (p=0.2) or those with reflux (p=0.036). SNPs within JMJD1C were associated with risk of EAC in females (p=0.001). However, none of these associations replicated in a subsequent sample. Fourteen other genes studied did not reach statistically significant levels of association with BE, EAC or the combination of BE and EAC, after correcting for the number of genes included in the analysis. In conclusion, genetic variants in the androgen-related genes CYP17A1 and JMJD1C might be associated with risk of BE and EAC, respectively, but replication data with larger sample sizes are needed.

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