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Evaluation of Pressure Generated by Resistors From Different Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices

Journal article
Authors Monika Fagevik Olsén
Maria L. Carlsson
E. Olsen
E. Westerdahl
Published in Respiratory Care
Volume 60
Issue 10
Pages 1418-1423
ISSN 0020-1324
Publication year 2015
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Surgery
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation
Pages 1418-1423
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.03587
Keywords positive expiratory pressure, breathing exercises, resistance breathing, chest-wall kinematics, physiotherapy, patterns, disease, bottle, copd, General & Internal Medicine, Respiratory System
Subject categories Clinical Medicine

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to improve pulmonary function and airway clearance. Different PEP devices are available, but there have been no studies that describe the pressure generated by different resistors. The purpose of this study was to compare pressures generated from the proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial flow-dependent PEP valves with all other parameters kept constant. METHODS: Resistors from 4 flow-regulated PEP devices (Pep/Rmt system, Wellspect HealthCare; Pipe P breathing exerciser, Koo Medical Equipment; Mini-PEP, Philips Respironics [including resistors by Rusch]; and 15-mm endo-adapter, VBM Medizintechnik) were tested randomly by a blinded tester at constant flows of 10 and 18 L/min from an external gas system. All resistors were tested 3 times. RESULTS: Resistors with a similar diameter produced statistically significant different pressures at the same flow. The differences were smaller when the flow was 10 L/min compared with 18 L/min. The differences were also smaller when the diameter of the resistor was increased. The pressures produced by the 4 resistors of the same size were all significantly different when measuring 1.5- and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 10 L/min and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 18 L/min (P < .001). There were no significant differences between any of the resistors when testing sizes of 4.5 and 5.0 mm at either flow. The Mini-PEP and adapter resistors gave the highest pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Pressures generated by the different proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial PEP devices were not comparable, even though the diameter of the resistors is reported to be the same. The pressures generated were significantly different, particularly when using small-diameter resistors at a high flow. Therefore, the resistors may not be interchangeable. This is important information for clinicians, particularly when considering PEP for patients who do not tolerate higher pressures. (C) 2015 Daedalus Enterprises

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