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How Is Men's Conformity to Masculine Norms Related to Their Body Image? Masculinity and Muscularity Across Western Countries

Journal article
Authors Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
Ann Frisén
M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
L. A. Ricciardelli
P. C. Diedrichs
Z. Yager
D. L. Franko
L. Smolak
Published in Psychology of Men & Masculinity
Volume 16
Issue 3
Pages 337-347
ISSN 1524-9220
Publication year 2015
Published at Department of Psychology
Pages 337-347
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038494
Keywords body image, cross-national differences, fitness, leanness, CONFIRMATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS, DRIVE, GENDER, SATISFACTION, EXPLORATION, VALIDATION, ESTEEM, GIRLS, BOYS, Psychology, Social
Subject categories Psychology

Abstract

Previous research has suggested that men's conformity to masculine norms (CMN) is an important correlate of men's drive for muscularity. The present study aimed to further delineate the relationship between masculinity and men's body image by examining various dimensions of CMN in relation to various dimensions of men's body image (muscularity, leanness, and fitness) in a cross-national sample. Participants comprised young men from the United States (n = 192), the United Kingdom (n = 141), Australia (n = 160), and Sweden (n = 142). Multigroup path analyses showed that CMN was related to drive for muscularity, leanness, and fitness in all 4 countries, but there were differences across countries in which dimensions of CMN predicted men's body image. Whereas conformity to the masculine norm of winning was a salient predictor across the 4 countries, conformity to the norm of risk-taking was linked to Australian men's body image, and conformity to the norm of violence to British men's body image. The findings support previous research suggesting that men's endorsement of the male gender role plays a significant role in their desire for an ideal body, but the results uniquely document that this relationship may differ across countries.

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