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Involvement of the Electrophilic Isothiocyanate Sulforaphane in Arabidopsis Local Defense Responses

Journal article
Authors Mats X. Andersson
Anders K. Nilsson
Oskar N. Johansson
G. Boztas
Lisa Adolfsson
Francesco Pinosa
Christel Garcia-Petit
Henrik Aronsson
D. Mackey
M. Tor
Mats Hamberg
Mats Ellerström
Published in Plant Physiology
Volume 167
Issue 1
Pages 251-+
ISSN 0032-0889
Publication year 2015
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 251-+
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.251892
Keywords DISEASE RESISTANCE RESPONSES, DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANCE, NB-LRR GENES, CELL-DEATH, GLUCOSINOLATE ACCUMULATION, HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE, SECONDARY METABOLITES, ACQUIRED-RESISTANCE, PLANT IMMUNITY, GLUTATHIONE, Plant Sciences
Subject categories Botany

Abstract

Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even though the HR was described almost a century ago, cell-to-cell factors acting at the local level generating the full defense reaction have remained obscure. In this study, we sought to identify diffusible molecules produced during the HR that could induce cell death in naive tissue. We found that 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) is released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue undergoing the HR and that this compound induces cell death as well as primes defense in naive tissue. Two different mutants impaired in the pathogen-induced accumulation of sulforaphane displayed attenuated programmed cell death upon bacterial and oomycete effector recognition as well as decreased resistance to several isolates of the plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Treatment with sulforaphane provided protection against a virulent H. arabidopsidis isolate. Glucosinolate breakdown products are recognized as antifeeding compounds toward insects and recently also as intracellular signaling and bacteriostatic molecules in Arabidopsis. The data presented here indicate that these compounds also trigger local defense responses in Arabidopsis tissue.

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