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Olfactomedin-4 autoantibodies give unusual c-ANCA staining patterns with reactivity to a subpopulation of neutrophils.

Journal article
Authors Firoozeh Amirbeagi
Pontus Thulin
Rille Pullerits
Bo Pedersen
Bengt A. Andersson
Claes Dahlgren
Amanda Welin
Johan Bylund
Published in Journal of leukocyte biology
Volume 97
Issue 1
Pages 181-189
ISSN 1938-3673
Publication year 2015
Published at Institute of Odontology
Institute of Medicine, Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research
Pages 181-189
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.5A0614-311R
Subject categories Internal medicine

Abstract

Testing for the presence of ANCAs in circulation is part of the clinical examinations routinely performed upon suspected autoimmune disorders, mainly vasculitis. The autoantibodies are typically directed toward neutrophil MPO or PR3. These are major granule-localized proteins, and similar to all hitherto-described ANCA antigens, they are expressed by all neutrophils, and ANCA-containing sera thus give rise to uniform reactivity toward all neutrophils in a sample. In this paper, we describe sera from 2 unrelated patients with diffuse inflammatory symptoms that gave rise to peculiar c-ANCA patterns, only reacting with a subpopulation (roughly 30%) of human neutrophils. By immunoblotting, both sera reacted to the same antigen, which was expressed in intracellular granules. The antigen could be released to the extracellular milieu through secretion but also through the formation of NETs. Neutrophils have long been considered a homogenous cell population, but it is becoming increasingly clear that distinct subpopulations, defined by the presence or absence of certain proteins, exist. One such marker that defines a neutrophil subset is the granule protein OLFM4. The unusual, subset-restricted c-ANCA sera reacted only with OLFM4-positive neutrophils, and MS analysis revealed that the autoantigen was, in fact, OLFM4. These data describe for the first time a c-ANCA pattern reactive to only a subpopulation of neutrophils and identify the granule protein OLFM4 as a novel autoantigen.

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